PACT

People are using technologies to undertake activities in contexts (Benyon, 2005). The acronym PACT stands for People, Activities, Contexts and Technologies. PACT was sprung out of the HCI concept and was thought to explicitly cover both social and technological aspects. PACT was a good way of ensuring that systems being evaluated were actually easy for people to use. Anderson (2011) writes that using a PACT analysis enables a greater understanding of existing systems. Since people use technologies in different contexts, the PACT framework was created to all  the aspects of human-centered interaction. The PACT Analysis tries to see where activities are conducted with which technologies in different contexts. The variation of each of these four elements makes designing interactive systems challenging, but ultimately rewarding. Technologies will always be available to support everyone to perform activities and when new technologies appear, the way of performing the activities changes (Benyon, 2005).

People

Physical differences

       Physical differences cover the attributes of a human being such as height, weight, personality, cognitive behavior, person preferences and how these play a part in affecting the user of the experiences for a user. These are very important to consider when building a new system/device, in order to retain user and make it easier for a new user. In essences, each component of a system should be designed to cover most of these attributes. These should be considered to be critical when it comes to ATMS (automated teller machine) design because everybody that handle money has to use an ATMS at one point, a number of people use ATMS several times during a day. ATM Manufacturers should consider physical differences in their ATMS design process since many people are suffering from health conditions like photosensitive epilepsy, Nearsightedness, and Farsightedness. These conditions make it difficult to utilize devices such ATMS and these conditions can be trigger by simple things such as bright light or size of the fonts. ATMS in Jamaica isn't geared towards people who speak other languages otherwise than English, even though we get millions of visitors yearly from tourism. Anecdotal evidence suggests that that most ATMs in Jamaica do not provide the option of changing its default language, and that they are not built with support for handicaps such as the blind, disabled and wheelchair-bound individual. However the JN ATM on UWI campus does have amenities for the disabled.

Many people are affected by Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) which is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights, bold, regular patterns, or regular moving patterns(Porciatti 2000). ATMS Manufacturer can help the user by providing the ability to control the screen brightness, font type, and font size. Many people are also affected by near Near-sightedness (myopia) which is a common cause of blurred vision. It can be mild, moderate, or severe. If you are nearsighted, objects in the distance appear blurry and out of focus (WebMD 2013). ATM Manufacturers need to give the user the option to increase the size of the fonts to allow people increase and decrease fonts. This is also the same for people, who are Farsightedness, or hyperopia, as it is medically termed, is a vision condition in which distant objects can be seen clearly, but close ones do not come into proper focus. Farsightedness occurs if your eyeball is too short or the cornea has too little curvature(AOA 2007).

            The physical locations of most ATMS are designed to accommodate the size of most humans. ATMS are naturally spacious which allow them to accommodate more than one person at a time. Only few ATMS are designed in locations that would affect the health and safety of their customers, these ATMS are normally in an open environment but normally a guard is there to patrol the atm.

ATMS are not built for usage by users that are blind, disabled and or wheelchair bound.  ATM manufacturers should consider improving their devices to allow usage by the handicap population since they are gaining more economy powers, this will provide them with more business. ATM can build to be more accessible through voice control; braille technology for the handicap, physical locations can be improved by adding ramps, such as railways and different controllers for handicap personals.

 The cognitive levels of individuals are different. ATMS never have tutorials, so they don’t consider the cognitive levels of their users; they assume everybody is the same levels of cognitive ability which is a very bad design. This alienates new users and most users won’t be aware of all the features available to them.

Psychological Different

People are psychologically different. They can be affected by simple things such as color, complex menus, complex configurations, a little feel of control and no tutorials. Some people can psychologically adapt to complex system quicker than others. ATM manufacturers need to meet both regular and power users’ needs of atm with the interface. ATM manufacturers should implement tutorials into their machines, to confirm that users are using the ATMs correctly and to demonstrate all the available features. This will help to provide a sense of internal control. The lack of a tutorial is a bad design decision, because if there is no help for a new user, the user experience may be unpleasant.

ATMS don’t give the basic options for different languages, which is unusual since most international banks are a part of the Global ATM Alliance which is a joint venture of several major international banks that allows customers of their banks to use their automated teller machine (2007 Wikipedia). You would think multiple language option would be a part of all ATMS design.  The selection of more than one language is a critically part a person Psychological built up. It could be easy to assume that a multiple language option would be a part of most ATMs design.  The option of more than one language is a critical. There should be a standard to which ATMs provide multiple languages since any a country will have several thousand visitors coming to a country on yearly basis. (Jamaica Gleaner 2015) English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin account for the largest percentages of spoken languages across the Western Hemisphere. Also, the benefits of the optional languages will reduce the misinterpretation of information.

Social Differences

Social differences are the distinction made between social groups and persons on the basis of biological, physiological and social cultural factors, as sex according to (Benyon, 2005). ATMS are very neutral devices when it comes to social differences ATMS are designed to be as non-symbolist as possible. Social differences such as cultural symbol, male gender oriented and or feminist symbols aren’t represented in ATMS in form or shape. ATMS tend to us one color; with the use of unambiguous words to avoid having this style of ATMS remain neutral. A social different wouldn’t be that much of consideration since ATMS are designed and built to be used by the majority of the population , most atm manufacturers would try to eliminate any symbol or use of words that  would offend any particular group of people. Social different would not really take consider.

Activities

Complexity

Complexity covers how well-defined the tasks are when performed on a health care system. If the tasks are well-defined, it becomes easier for a user to manage by themselves, however, if they are vague, they more than often need help to complete a task (Benyon, 2005). The interface of an ATM normally involves a numeric keypad, small screen and actions keys located to the side of the screen, used on the menu. A number of actions keys can be reduced; there is not a need for such complex setup for input. A user has to over stretch their hands between the action keys and numeric buttons. The action keys could be put on the numeric keypad or removed altogether, to reduce movement. The user interface is a simple text based menu; each option follows a few step, without warning message or explanation. There many options but it can be unclear what these actions do because there is no explanation. The ATM shines at making most basic operations can be accomplished in a few clicks, even depositing. Overall ATMs shine at doing simple tasks, but not complicated tasks. There isn’t any  ability to do things such as multiple transactions. There is no 'back' button to navigate to the previous menu when in the middle of a transaction. The transaction can only be canceled. When  canceled, the user must re-enter their card and  credentials. The fault in the simple design takes up unnecessary time and makes the interface seem rigid and inflexible.Temporal aspects

Temporal aspects

Temporal aspects cover how frequently certain activities are performed (Benyon, 2005).   Most operations on ATMs can be done fairly quickly. Response time for ATMS are usually speedy but issues come about when you have to do multiple operations. For example, a user could want to withdraw, send money and check different account balances. The time spent in the ATMs increase exponentially, because for each operation the access card and password have to be re-entered. ATMs do not save the regular routines of user, nor does it give the option to save it. In fact, if ATMSs offer more personalized user profiles, it would drastically shorten wait lines at the ATMs and speed up usage. Also, a feature that could help to increase and reduce the time would be allowing the user to do arithmetic operations such as multiplication and division by providing dedicated keys for them.

Cooperative features

 ATMS do not have to cooperate features since the experiences are meant to be safe and secure. This is very well done; people are very security about their banking information and status of their finance. Some locations that ATMS are very secure include the building, ATMS, and the physical location, there are even security guards to help further make safe to help ensure your activity is done without the disruption of others

The Nature of the data

The nature of the content data what activates are made and if you supporting technology. The ATM data are numerical numbers, the numeric keypad, and the screen will be sufficient enough to enter data. If the ATM is upgraded for support of the blind, then new input devices for voice and a braille numeric keypad would be needed but otherwise, the numeric keypad and screen is enough.

Context

 Physical Environment

The physical environment is the actual place where the activity takes place. For instance; it might be outdoors, indoors, in a zoo or wherever. Physical environment also covers things like if it is sunny outside, raining and other natural aspects. (Benyon, 2005).  ATMS locations are generally very good locations with A.c to keep the room cold and also to block the sun from shining on the display. As regard to the physical environment, many considerations have been taken by the manufacturers to ensure the ATMS are placed in secure and weather friends locations for customers to use since ATMS are a relatively expensive machine to install and secure.

Social Context

 The social Context within which the activity takes place is also important. A supportive environment will offer plenty of help for the activity. There may be training manuals available, tutorials or experts to hand if people get into trouble (Benyon 2005).  There some level social context considers when the ATMS are located in the bank, where tellers can come and assist the users. At other locations there is no form of social context is taken into consideration since there are no tutorials at built into ATMS, there are no individuals to assist users or any way to contact any individual to ask for help.

Organizational Context

Organizational context is all about where you work. This means that you do your activities in different places, different times and so on. It also covers how technology changes communication and the way you work in an organization (Benyon, 2005).

 Due to the nature of ATMS as being a device that is meant to be used by one individual for the sole  purpose of performing banking functionality on a bank account .Organizational context wouldn’t be taken into consideration since you can only use ATMS at their  distinct location  and nowhere else. Which makes it a good design choice since you will have the almost identical experiences each time you visit an ATMS

Technologies

Input

The input devices that works best for an ATMS would be a numeric keypad for input there isn’t need for another form of input if they redesign the ATMS to support mental the handicap suggests the blind. Then they would reconsider implement a microphone for voice input and Braille keyboard technology to help out the handicap. Currently, the keyboard and card reader are sufficient enough input devices for it.

Output

The ATMS has a screen and printer for output devices which consideration can be taken to upgrade the technology that is used. Monitor technology has advanced further in years to be sharper, brighter and requires less energy. In fact, if the screen technologies change it could save millions on electricity. The printer is very good, giving options to not to print and using a small amount of paper          

Communication

The communication in technologies refers to how people communicate with devices. Communication includes things like bandwidth and speed. Equally important is how the system communicates back to the people (Benyon, 2005). ATMS communication devices are connected to a global communication network that has been in development for decades now. The latency in accessing bank network via the ATMS machine is very low, also non-existent. If there are issues accessing the network the atm informs the user there really much consideration or improvement needed here.

Content

The information on the system is presented fairly well; however, they need tutorials to show what the system is capable of and maybe glossary to explain the terms. A process is needed where all the information is reviewed from time to time to see that it is still correct and relevant.

Reference

Anderson, Adam. (2011) PACT Analysis and prototype design for an interactive system

http://www.scribd.com/doc/49977330/PACT-Analysis-and-prototype-designfor-an-interactive-system (20111030)

Benyon, David, Phil Turner, and Susan Turner. Designing interactive systems: People, activities, contexts, technologies. Pearson Education, 2005.

Porciatti, V., Bonanni, P., Fiorentini, A., & Guerrini, R. (2000). Lack of cortical contrast gain control in human photosensitive epilepsy. Nature neuroscience, 3(3), 259-263.

http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/hyperopia?sso=y

http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/business/20150517/2015-shaping-another-record-year-tourism

http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/nearsightedness-myopia-topic-overview

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